When choosing a dosage form, attention is paid to stability during storage, compliance with its purpose, ease of use, speed of action, simplicity and speed of preparation, dosage accuracy of the medicinal substances included in it, cost, etc. That is why the choice of dosage form should be given special importance.
Currently, there are several classifications of existing dosage forms, of which the most common is the classification depending on the state of aggregation. According to the state of aggregation, solid (dry), soft, liquid, and gaseous dosage forms are distinguished.
3 Types Of Dosage Forms You Must Know As A Pet Owner
Solid Dosage Forms
Solid dosage forms include boluses, briquettes, granules, pills, dust, capsules, pills, plasters, powders, fees, tablets.
In order to give the dog a tablet (bolus, granule, dragee, capsule, pill), the animal must be seated, its head raised up, and its mouth opened with both hands. The tablet is clamped in the fingers and pushed as far as possible to the root of the tongue. The animal is then allowed to close its jaws and swallow the tablet.
Small animals (cats) can be given tablets with tweezers, forceps.
- Powder (pulveris)
- Powder (aspersionis)
- Tablet (tabulettae)
- Capsule (capsulae)
- Pill (pilulae)
- Bolus (boli)
- Briquette (briketi)
- Granule (granulae)
- Collection (speciei)
- Plaster (emplastri)
Other Solid Dosage Forms
In addition to tablets, powders, dragees, granules, and pills, some other types of solid dosage forms are relatively rarely used in modern medical practice. These include caramels and lozenges.
- Lozenge, or troche (trochiscius)
Soft Dosage Forms
Soft dosage forms include ointments, pastes, liniments, suppositories, cereals.
To inject the drug in the form of an ointment, paste, eye drops into the eyes of the animal, it is necessary to press the dog’s head to itself, spread the eyelids with your fingers, and squeeze the ointment out of the tube (drip the drops) without touching the animal’s eye.
To inject the drug in the form of an ointment, paste, ear drops into the ears of the animal, it is necessary to press the dog’s head to itself, raise the auricle and squeeze the ointment out of the tube (drip drops) into the widest canal. Then the animal’s head is released and the base of the auricle is massaged by hand.
- Ointment (unguenti)
- Characteristics of ointment bases
- Pasta (pastae)
- Suppositories (suppositorii)
Liquid Dosage Forms
Liquid dosage forms include solutions, medicines, suspensions, emulsions, infusions, decoctions, mucus, tinctures, extracts, aromatic waters, syrups, etc.
Liquid medicines (mixture, infusion, tincture, decoction, solution, syrup, mucus, suspension, extract, emulsion) are administered through the mouth to the animal using a spoon, a baby enema, or a syringe without a needle. In order to inject a liquid drug through the mouth, the animal must be seated, its head must be lifted up (and the mouth must not be forcibly opened), the cheek must be pulled back and the drug is poured into the corner of the mouth. As soon as the animal swallows the medicine, the head is released.
- Solution (solutionis)
- Non-sterile solutions
- Preparation of non-sterile solutions
- Sterile solutions (solutions for injection)
- Preparation of sterile solutions
- Preparation of mixtures for the treatment of cats
- Suspension (suspensionis)
- Emulsion (emulsi)
- Infusion (infusi) and decoction (decocti)
- Preparation of infusions and decoctions for the treatment of cats
- Mucus (vucilaginis)
- Tincture (tincturae)
- Extract (extracti)
- Medicinal liquid (liquoris)
- Syrup (sirupi)
- Soaps (saponis)
- Baths (Balnea)
- Enemas (Clysma seu Enema)
- Aerosols (Aerosolum)
Basic Knowledge About Animal Pharmacology
Dosage forms, manufacturing technology, and methods of introduction into the body of an animal.
In pharmacology, special terms have been established that define various medicinal substances.
Medicinal substance – a material substrate – any substance of plant, animal, mineral origin, which, when introduced into the body in appropriate quantities, has a therapeutic or prophylactic effect.
Medicinal raw materials are materials of various origins used to obtain other substances in medicine that are suitable in chemical and physical properties for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes or pharmacological research.
Dosage form – a medicinal substance that has been subjected to pharmaceutical processing for the purpose of more convenient and effective use.
Medicinal product – a medicinal substance (substances) in a certain dosage form, which has been given a rational name and allowed for industrial production, clinical trial, or practical use. One and the same medicinal substance can be applied to the same animal not only in different ways but also in different forms.